Isaac Newton

English scientist, 1643-1727

"Sir Isaac Newton was an English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, theologian, and author who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book ""Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica"", first published in 1687, laid the foundations of classical mechanics. In ""Principia"", Newton formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that formed the dominant scientific viewpoint until it was superseded by the theory of relativity. Newton also made seminal contributions to optics, and shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for developing the infinitesimal calculus."

Source: Wikipedia

Newton, Isaac

English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, theologian, and author (1642-1727). Autograph manuscript unsigned. no place. 4 pages. 4to (8 x 6 in.; 204 x 154 mm) on an uncut sheet of paper (watermarked posthorn hg | mc) folded to quarto, final 4 pages unwritten and unopened, 38 lines to a full page, with a few deletions and emendations, written in Latin.
$ 271,080 / 225.000 € (78406)

A collection of alchemical quotations copied from a wide variety of carefully identified printed sources, demonstrative of Newton’s careful reading.  Many quotations are from Michael Maier’s Septimana philosophica  published in Frankfurt in 1620, of which Newton owned a copy (Harrison 1046), although its whereabouts are not known. Maier’s Symbola aureae mensae duoodecim nationum,  Frankfurt, 1617 is also quoted (Newton’s copy is now in Jerusalem=Harrison 1048).  There is also one reference to his Hieroglyphica.

 Michael Maier (1566-1622) was a physician at the court of Rudolph II, who after Rudolf’s death in 1612 left Prague for Britain, where he published numerous books to support the truth of alchemy and hermetic philosophy, at a time when charlatans (as satirized by Ben Jonson in The Alchemist) abounded. Many of his works are illustrated with fine engravings. One has the impression that these sententiae have been carefully composed. The very first is a quotation from Turba philosophorum (possibly cited from the edition in Artis auriferae  of 1610), bolstered, as it were, by a quotation definitely taken from volume IV of Theatrum chemicum  (pp. 902 & 903) from the text Lilium tanquam de spinis erutum. The paragraph on page 3 beginning “Infantis philosophici parentes et nutrix (gold, silver & mercury [symbols])” has a build-up of references beginning with the Tabula smaragdina and Grasshoff, with precise references to the last line on p. 312, followed by Lull, Maier, and Laurentius Ventura. The different color of the ink here may suggest references added subsequently. Similarly the quotations from Artephius, Flamel, and Rosinus, as well as the last one “Liber Abre in Musaeo hermetico p. 33x” show us quite clearly how Newton moved around his books. Artephius and Flamel (generally spelled Flammel by Newton, who owned the 1624 English edition) belong together (cf. Harrison 1309, 1310, a French compilation, Philosophie naturelle de trois anciens philosophes, that abstracted both).  Rosinus is cited as printed in Artis auriferae  I, pp. 158-204, and the quotation from “Liber Abre” is from the top of p. 334 in the 1677 Musaeum hermeticum.  This manuscript must therefore postdate 1677 (at least in part) and probably dates from the 1680s..

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Newton, Isaac

English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, theologian, and author (1642-1727). "Sententiae notabiles expositae". Autograph manuscript. No place. 4to (204 x 154 mm). 8 pp., of which 4 are written. 1 folded leaf (watermark: cor de postillon HG / MC), the 4 last leaves blank and uncut.
$ 271,080 / 225.000 € (79711/BN51797)

Interesting compilation of alchemical notes in Latin. It was the sale of Newton’s archives in 1936 that revealed the extent of his interest in alchemy, hermetics and unorthodox theology. Sources and quotes are indicated with great precision and denote an attentive reader. Many are taken from the "Septimana philosophica" of Michael Maier (Frankfurt, 1620), of which we know that Newton owned a copy (John Harrison, The Library of Isaac Newton, 1046). The "Symbola aureaea mensae duodecim nationum" by the same author (Frankfurt, 1617) are also a source (Harrison 1048; National Library of Israel, Jerusalem, coll.

S. M. Edelstein), as well as the "Hieroglyphica aegyptio-graeca" (London, ca. 1614?). Michael Maier (1568-1622) was a German physician and alchemist who travelled to the court of Rudolf II in Prague and became his personal advisor. Upon Rudolf's death in 1612, Maier made his way to England, where he published a number of alchemical works and hermetic philosophy. - Newton's present "Sententiae" were composed with great care, and the writer corrected his work himself (note a few erasures). The first quote is taken from the "Turba philosophorum" (likely from the text published in "Artis auriferae", Basel 1610: Harrison 90; Trinity College, Cambridge), with an additional reference to the "Liber lilium tanquam de spinis evulsum" by G. Tecenensis, as found in volume IV of the celebrated "Theatrum chemicum" (published 1659-61): "Aes [corpus mortuum] non lingit nisi [spiritu tenui abstracto] lingatur [per extractionem animae et imbibitionem septenam] sed si lingitur lingit" (Turba p. 14, 25; Lilium de spinis p. 902, 903). - "Sulphura sulphuribus continentur, [i.e. condensa humidis, seu corpora spiritibus suis per imbibitionem septenam conjuncta]" (Turba p. 14, 22, 30). - An entry in the present manuscript found on page 3 reads: "Infantis philosophici parentes et nutrix [...]". This is actually a string of references from "Tab[ula] Smaragd[ina]", Grasshoff, "El Raymund in Theorica Testamenti" (Raymond Lull), the "Hierogl[yphica]" of Maier, and Laurentius Ventura. The difference in the colour of ink suggests that these references were added at a later date. - Other quotes are taken from Artephius and Nicolas Flamel (Newton spells the name "Flammel"), as found in the "Philosophie naturelle de trois anciens philosophes renommez", Paris 1682, that Newton owned in two copies (Harrison 1309-1310, Trinity College); from Rosinus (as found in "Artis auriferae", tom. I, pp. 158-204); and from the "Liber Abre" (p. 334 of the "Musaeum hermeticum", Frankfurt 1677: Harrison 1131, Trinity College). This reference allows for a terminus post quem date for the present manuscript of after 1677, likely in the 1680s. - Provenance: The Newton Papers (Sotheby’s, London 13 July 1936, part of lot 103), bought by Emmanuel Fabius; later sold again at Sotheby’s, Sir Isaac Newton. Highly Important Manuscripts (Sotheby’s, New York, 3 December 2004, no 502)..

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