Karl Marx

German-born economist, 1818-1883

Karl Marx was a philosopher, economist, sociologist, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. Born in Germany, he later became stateless and spent much of his life in London. Marx's work in economics laid the basis for much of the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, and subsequent economic thought. He published numerous books during his lifetime, the most notable being The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867–1894). Marx's ideas have had a profound impact on world politics and intellectual thought.

Source: Wikipedia

Marx, Karl

Komponist und Musikpädagoge (1897–1985). Eigenh. Brief mit U. Stuttgart. Mit eh. adr. Kuvert.
$ 90 / 80 € (12603)

Karl Marx (1897–1985), Komponist und Musikpädagoge. E. Brief mit U. Stuttgart, 4. Jänner 1970. Mit e. adr. Kuvert. – An Heinz Birker mit der Mitteilung des Verlags seiner „Rilke-Gesänge“. – Karl Marx studierte zunächst Naturwissenschaften, später dann Komposition bei u. a. Carl Orff und Siegmund von Hausegger und wurde 1929 Lehrer für Tonsatz an der Akademie der Tonkunst, München. Später lehrte er am Johann-Joseph-Fux-Konservatorium in Graz und war von 1946 bis zu seiner Emeritierung Professor für Komposition an der Musikhochschule Stuttgart.

Er gilt als „einer der wichtigsten Vertreter der Jugendmusik mit zahlreichen, in ihrer schlichten Klarheit dem Volkslied nahen Vertonungen nach Texten von Rainer Maria Rilke [...] Friedrich Hölderlin, Hans Carossa und Wilhelm Busch“ (DBE). Daneben komponierte er Orchesterwerke, Instrumentalkonzerte, Kammermusik, Klaviermusik, Orgelwerke, Kantaten und zahlreiche Chorwerke. – Auf Briefpapier mit gedr. Briefkopf..

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Marx, Karl

Komponist (1897-1985). Programm mit eigenh. U. O. O. 10 SS. Gr.-8vo.
$ 67 / 60 € (2992)

Karl Marx (1897-1985), Komponist. Programm m. e. U. auf der Titelseite, o. O., Frühjahr 1957, 10 Seiten gr.-8°. Sein „Werkverzeichnis“ m. e. Namenszug unter seinem Porträt. Mit namentlicher Widmung.

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Marx, Karl

Komponist und Musikpädagoge (1897–1985). Eigenh. Musikzitat mit U. O. O. u. D. 1 S. Qu.-8vo.
$ 168 / 150 € (72551)

1 Notenzeile „Jeden Morgen geht die Sonne auf“. - Karl Marx studierte zunächst Naturwissenschaften, später dann Komposition bei u. a. Carl Orff und Siegmund von Hausegger und wurde 1929 Lehrer für Tonsatz an der Akademie der Tonkunst, München. Später lehrte er am Johann-Joseph-Fux-Konservatorium in Graz und war von 1946 bis zu seiner Emeritierung Professor für Komposition an der Musikhochschule Stuttgart. Er gilt als „einer der wichtigsten Vertreter der Jugendmusik mit zahlreichen, in ihrer schlichten Klarheit dem Volkslied nahen Vertonungen nach Texten von Rainer Maria Rilke [...] Friedrich Hölderlin, Hans Carossa und Wilhelm Busch“ (DBE).

Daneben komponierte er Orchesterwerke, Instrumentalkonzerte, Kammermusik, Klaviermusik, Orgelwerke, Kantaten und zahlreiche Chorwerke..

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Marx, Karl

philosopher and economist (1818-1883). Autograph letter signed ("Ch. Marx"). Paris. 8vo. 1 p. on bifolium. Measures 202:131 mm.
$ 359,232 / 320.000 € (74566/BN48703)

In this, one of Marx's few known letters dating from his stay in Paris between June and August 1849, he bids his farewells to the French journalist and politician Ferdinand Flocon (1800-66) on the day of his departure for London: "Mon cher Flocon, J'ai du quitter la France, par ordre de la république honnête, sans pouvoir vous faire mes adieux. M. Wolff, qui vous présentera cette lettre, répresente en mon absence notre journal et notre parti. Je vais résider à Londres. Si vous avez quelque chose à m'écrire, veuillez la remettre à M.

Julian Harvey, rédacteur du Northern Star. Salut et fraternité [...]." Flocon was the editor of the democratic newspaper "La Réforme"; Engels hat met him in October 1847 and contributed several articles. While Marx and Engels had little regard for Flocon's petty-bourgeois politics and at first viewed him chiefly as a tool for their propagandistic purposes, they soon recognized Flocon as a man of character, Engels writing on 28 March 1848: "I've been to visit old Flocon a few times, the fellow still lives in his wretched fifth-floor flat, smokes the most common tobacco in an old clay pipe and has only bought himself a new dressing gown. Otherwise quite as republican in his habits as he was as editor of the 'Réforme', and just as genial, cordial, and outspoken as ever. He's one of the most upright fellows I know." A Montagnard and member of the provisional government of the Republic in 1848 (he would be expelled from France after the 1851 coup d'état), it was Flocon who invited Marx to France with an enthusiastic letter at the very moment when he was evicted from Brussels: "Brave et loyal Marx! Le sol de la République Française est un champs d'azyle pour tous les amis de la liberté. La tyrannie vous a banni: la France libre vous rouvre ses portes à vous [...]" (Paris, 1 March 1848). When the revolutionary fervor seized Europe, Marx again set off for Germany in April, but in May 1849 the Prussian authorities turned him out. He returned to Paris in June, only to receive a notice of banishment to Brittany on 19 July. Marx fought the order, but lost his appeal on 23 August. On the same day, he wrote to Engels: "I have been banished to the Departement of Morbihan, the Pontine Marshes of Brittany. You will understand that I will have no part in this disguised attempt at murder. Hence, I am leaving France. I cannot have a passport to Switzerland, so I must to London, tomorrow [...]". A day later, he wrote the present farewell to his "cher Flocon", never again to settle on the continent. - On wove paper with floral design embossed to upper left corner, there marked "8" in faint blue crayron, likely by the recipient. Some browning and light wrinkling; traces of original folds. Some duststains and traces of mounting on blank leaf, but well preserved..

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Marx, Karl

philosopher and economist (1818-1883). Autograph letter signed ("Karl Marx"). 41 Maitland Park Road, London. 8vo. ½ page on laid paper, torn from a notebook, watermark "Joyn[son] Super[fine]". Measures 181:114 mm.
$ 207,681 / 185.000 € (76240/BN48768)

Unpublished letter to the Chartist and radical freethinker Collet Dobson Collet (1812-98), in English: "My dear Sir, On my return from the seaside I found your letter d.d. 23 September. You will much oblige me by being so kind as to forward me some of the copies of the 'Revelations', as I have none left. Yours very truly [...]". - In very good condition, with intersecting folds, moderate wrinkling and a few creases; the sheet is bright, the writing dark, precise, and easily legible in spite of Marx's distinctively minute hand.

- Marx was a close friend of the Collet family, which included the pioneering feminist activist Sophia Dobson Collet, social reformer Clara Collet, and the recipient of this letter, the editor of "The Free Press: A Diplomatic Review", to which Marx contributed a number of articles. The men became good friends and soon held weekly meetings at each other's houses to recite Shakespeare. The assembled group, which was formally coined as the Dogberry Club, included Marx's daughter Eleanor and Collet's daughter Clara, as well as Edward Rose, Dollie Radford, Sir Henry Juta, and Friedrich Engels. The publication to which Marx alludes, "Revelations of the Diplomatic History of the 18th Century", was originally serialized in the "Free Press" from August 1856 to April 1857..

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Marx, Karl

philosopher and economist (1818-1883). Autograph letter signed. Brussels. 8vo. 1 p. bifolium with integral address leaf.
$ 134,712 / 120.000 € (76591/BN49559)

Unpublished, early letter in French, Marx's only known missive to the Belgian journalist and politician Lucien-Léopold Jottrand (1804-77): "J’ai l’honneur de vous faire parvenir l’original de mon petit discours inséré au Northern Star. Je me fais un Plaisir d’y ajouter un exemplaire de mon livre contre M. Proudhon [...]". Like Engels, Jottrand was a member of the Fraternal Democrats of Brussels. On 27 September the society had adopted the decision to found a Democratic Association, and Engels was elected to its Organising Committee.

Engels had made Jottrand aware that he might have to leave Brussels and thus be unable to serve on the Committee, but that he would suggest Marx to replace him. Indeed, on the 30th, Engels officially wrote to Jottrand that circumstances would require his absence: "I therefore request you to call on a German democrat resident in Brussels to participate in the work of the committee charged with organising a universal democratic society. I would take the liberty of proposing to you one of the German democrats in Brussels whom the meeting, had he been able to attend it, would have nominated for the office which, in his absence, it honoured me by conferring upon myself. I mean Mr Marx, who, I am firmly convinced, has the best claim to represent German democracy on the committee. Hence it would not be Mr Marx who would be replacing me there, but rather I who, at the meeting, replaced Mr Marx [...]" (MEGA III.2, 110). On the same day, he advised Marx of the content of his letter to Jottrand: " I had in fact already agreed with Jottrand that I would advise him in writing of my departure and propose you for the committee. Jottrand is also away and will be back in a fortnight. If, as I believe, nothing comes of the whole affair, it will be Heilberg’s proposal that falls through; if something does come of it, then it will be we who have brought the thing about. Either way we have succeeded in getting you and, after you, myself, recognised as representatives of the German democrats in Brussels, besides the whole plot having been brought to a dreadfully ignominious end. Karl Marx wrote several pieces for Friedrich Engels’s "Northern Star" in 1847, so it is not clear which manuscript (“l’original”), he enclosed to Gottrand. But the book he enclosed was the recently published was The Poverty of Philosophy, a pivotal work in Marx’s thinking and an attack on the anarchist Pierre-Joséph Proudon’s Philosophy of Poverty. Marx memorably described his opponent as “petit bourgeois”, a epithet which resounded in all later Communist literature. Marx’s book paved the way for the Communist Manifesto, written between December 1847 and January 1848. Marx has dated the letter "2 octobre" from his Brussels address in the rue d’Orléans. The letter is docketed "1848" in another hand. Marx was expelled from Brussels earlier in 1848, so the date of the letter must be 2 October 1847, which was also the year of publication of The Poverty of Philosophy. - Vertical and horizontal folds..

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Marx, Karl

Eigenh. Manuskript.
Autograph ist nicht mehr verfügbar

The long-lost "Fourth Brussels Notebook": a substantive manuscript, mainly in French, written during the highly productive spring of 1845, when Marx in his Brussels exile embarked on the preliminary studies for his "Kritik der politischen Ökonomie" and the "Kapital". Nearly two decades later, while preparing the "Kapital" manuscript, Marx added ten pages of calculations and mathematical notes: like most of the excerpts in the earlier portions of the volume, they would be included to a large extent in his magnum opus. One of the last great Marx manuscripts in private hands and the most extensive specimen to appear in the trade for 80 years. The unifying theme of this excerpt book based on French and British economists is clearly that of money, trade, and credit, as well as the concept and role of capital. "Indeed, Marx was not only interested in abstract, theoretical notions, but also in specific information as to various countries. Material about France he found in Dupré de Saint Maur, about the Netherlands in De Pinto, about Russia especially in Storch" (cf. MEGA IV/3, p. 463). His attention was focused on "the basic concerns of classical political economy: the nature of wealth and its sources, the role of work, the nature of value and its relation to price, the role of money etc." Marx's desire to "acquire as extensive a knowledge as possible" is evident (cf. ibid., p. 461). - The notebook links up with a slightly earlier, similar volume in which Marx had collected excerpts, ending with extracts from the German-Baltic economist Heinrich von Storch. The present ms. begins with excerpts from Storch's "Cours d'économie politique" (Paris 1824f.), namely from vol. 3, pt. 2 ("Considérations sur la nature de revenu national") and from the final volume (notes by J.-B. Say). These are followed by brief extracts from N. F. Dupré de St. Maur's "Essai sur les monnoies" (Paris 1746), to which Marx would make no reference later. After this, he prepared extensive extracts from Isaac de Pinto's "Traité de la circulation et du credit" (Amsterdam 1771) - an influential work that endorsed public debt, division of labour, the issue of bank notes, and stock exchange trading. The "Traité" included several additional, shorter works, and Marx prepared extracts of varying length from all of them. He would quote from these in several of his own works, including the first volume of the "Kapital". These passages are followed by similarly extensive extracts from Josiah Child's "Traites sur le commerce" (Berlin 1754, a French translation of the 1693 "New Discourse About Trade"). This work, widely read until well into the second half of the 18th century, argued for low interest rates and for strengthening the balance of foreign trade. Marx made excerpts from the entire work and used them in the third book of his "Kapital". He occasionally interrupts these excerpts to include short notes of his own - comments that explain the reason for including each text and that are invaluable for understanding Marx's creative method. Ten additional pages contain mathematical calculations probably penned during the years 1861/63 while Marx was working on the "Kapital" manuscript and which relate to the rates of surplus value and profit (second book). Some, however, refer to the 1850s housekeeping costs of the Marx family and thus are of biographical interest. - The year 1845 also marks the beginning of the collaboration between Marx and Engels: that very spring they published their first joint effort, "Die heilige Familie". The Brussels years produced groundbreaking works such as "Thesen über Feuerbach" and "Die deutsche Ideologie". While not published until much later, they first formulated central elements of historical materialism. Brussels is also the place where principal parts of the "Communist Manifesto" were drafted. - First 3 leaves loose with slight edge damage (no loss to text); generally tightly bound with insignificant edge defects and without any loss to text. Compared with the original condition which still prevailed in the 1920s, the final 3 leaves are missing: these contained extracts from Benjamin Bell's "De la disette" (Geneva 1804, not used by Marx in his own publications or manuscripts) as well as a few calculations, all probably penned somewhat later. Of these three leaves, the final and third-last one are today kept at the Moscow RC (Rossijskij centr chranenija i izucenija dokumentov novejsej istorii; Russian Centre for the Preservation and Study of Documents of Recent History) after having been gifted to Mikhail Gorbachev in the late 1980s by the American business manager and philanthropist Armand Hammer (1898-1990). The penultimate leaf is considered lost. - Provenance: In American private collection since 1990; directly acquired from the collector in 2012.


Marx, Karl

Autograph letter signed.
Autograph ist nicht mehr verfügbar

To the Chartist Collet Dobson Collet, a review of the electoral system in the German states. Marx, evidently responding to an enquiry from Collet, lists ten significant points about the German electoral and parliamentary systems, beginning with the facts that members of the Prussian lower house are paid, but those of the electoral colleges are not, that election costs are paid out of provincial exchequers (adding an observation on the division of electoral districts: "Aliquot parts of the population choose each one member for Parliament"), and that there is no qualification for becoming a member of parliament or of the electoral colleges. A substantial paragraph is devoted to explaining the income-based composition of these electoral colleges: "The primary voters include all men from the age of 25 years who pay any direct tax. Certain direct taxes are paid by almost everybody, even servants"; these voters are divided into three electoral classes, depending on how much tax they pay, and "Each of the three electoral classes so formed elects the same number of secondary electors who form the electoral body that finally nominates the members of Parliament'". After explaining two other details of the Prussian system, Marx explains that 'The modes of election throughout Germany are far from uniform. Generally, however, the system of double elections prevails', though he notes that in Bavaria there is not the Prussian division into classes; in terms of probity and discipline, "Cases of electoral bribery are absolutely unknown in all German states", "The daily attendance of members of Parliament is rigorously enforced' and there exists no equivalent of the British 'count-out'; finally, ministers can take part in parliamentary debates even if not members, but cannot of course vote".


Marx, Karl

Eigenh. Brief mit U.
Autograph ist nicht mehr verfügbar

To the publisher Heinrich Brockhaus in Leipzig, offering articles for his journal "Die Gegenwart". "Your Excellency, I hereby inquire whether you […] are in need of an article concerning 'the modern national economical literature in England, 1830-1852'. To my knowledge, no similar work, not in German nor in English, has so far been published. It would include 1) general works on political economy, 2) specialized writings published at the time, in so far as they treat epochal controversies, such as population, the German colonies, banking issues, protective duties and free trade, etc. […]. Another work, very topical at this moment, is 'The present state of the parties' - those which will face one another in the next parliament […]". - Note on letterhead (27 August). In his letter to Engels of 8 September 1852, Marx describes his desperate situation: he is unable to call a doctor for his wife and daughter "because I have no money for medicine […] I have been trying everything, all in vain. […] I applied to Brockhaus and I am offering him an article for the 'Gegenwart' with harmless content. He turned me down by a very kind letter […]" (MEW 28, 58).


Marx, Karl

Autograph manuscript leaf of notes on the Polish question, taken from the notebook labelled "Exzerpte. Heft No 2".
Autograph ist nicht mehr verfügbar

A rare opportunity to acquire a leaf of an original Karl Marx manuscript, his research notes towards a planned joint publication with Engels following the uprising in the Russian part of Poland in January 1863. "When in 1863 the January uprising broke out in the Russian part of Poland and a Prussian intervention on the side of the Tsar with the Russo-Prussian Alvensleben Convention (February 8th) appeared probable, Karl Marx saw a new era of European revolutions opened and a statement necessary. He and Friedrich Engels planned to write a manifesto on behalf of the London based German émigré Bildungsgesellschaft für Arbeiter as well as a more comprehensive and elaborate pamphlet to be titled ‘Deutschland & Polen. Polit[isch]. milit[ärische]. Betrachtungen bei Gelegenheit des polnischen Aufstands von 1863'" (Götz Langkau, IISG). Though ultimately abandoned due to poor health and, implicitly, the waning revolutionary prospects of the insurrection, Marx spent the early months of 1863 filling a notebook with extracts from the daily press, and two exercise books with extracts and notes from a variety of diplomatic sources, historical surveys and political pamphlets covering Polish-Prussian-Russian relations from the early 18th century, and various drafts of the intended historical survey, more or less elaborated and covering mainly events of the 18th century up to the Congress of Vienna. The present leaf, removed from the second exercise book headed "Exzerpte, Heft No 2 (Politischer, nicht zum Heft gehöriger Dreck)", approximately 750 words in length, contains notes about Russia’s German policy between Austerlitz and the Vienna congress. - Final line of page 51 very slightly smudged, the inner edge of the leaf unevenly trimmed, in very good condition. We are indebted to Götz Langkau of the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam for his report on this leaf, available upon request.


Marx, Karl

Eigenh. Brief mit U. ("Dein Mohr").
Autograph ist nicht mehr verfügbar

To a young friend, the archaeologist Charles Waldstein (later Walstone, 1856-1927) in London, whom he intended to visit. "Liebes Waldhorn / Ich lasse diese Zeilen bei Dir wenn Du nicht zu Haus sein solltest. Ich bin willig Mittwoch 7 Uhr Abend zu kommen, wind and weather permitting, that is to say, if it be not too cold for the present conditions of my corpus delicti. Alle Versprechen dieser Welt sind ja relativ [...]". - Mounted on backing paper at the left edge. Very rare.